Integration Into Plans

An understanding of infrastructure dependencies can be integrated into planning processes by:

  • Including a description of critical infrastructure systems and their associated dependencies in the community overview section of any Plan
  • Including mapping of critical infrastructure systems, assets, and/or service lines/corridors serving the planning area
  • Using dependencies to prioritize infrastructure actions in order to meet community development and/or risk mitigation objectives,
  • Using dependencies to prioritize critical assets, Plan initiatives, strategies, projects, or recommendations
  • Using dependency analysis to identify obstacles to resilience that need to be addressed and by whom,
  • Identifying new projects, policies, or procedures based on the risks associated with infrastructure dependencies
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of a Plan based on how it addresses implications of infrastructure dependencies

Infrastructure dependency insights can be incorporated into various existing community planning efforts, such as comprehensive planning, hazard mitigation planning, environmental planning, capital improvement planning, emergency response planning, economic development planning, business continuity planning, and multiple types of regional planning.

Including infrastructure dependency information in community planning can lead to informed decision-making before, during, and after a hazard or disruption and better outcomes.

The table below shows how an understanding of dependencies can specifically enhance various common community and regional plans.

Plan Type

Plan Elements

An Understanding of Dependencies Can Help:

Hazard Mitigation Plan

  • Planning Process
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment
  • Mitigation Strategy
  • Plan Maintenance Process
  • Plan Adoption
  • Identify who should be included as stakeholders in the planning process
  • Identify and prioritize critical facilities
  • Determine risks to essential community functions
  • In developing more effective mitigation projects that improve community resilience

Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy

  • Summary Background – economic conditions of region
  • SWOT Analysis – strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats
  • Strategic Direction/Action Plan – goals/objectives and implementation actions
  • Evaluation Framework – measure implementation and impact on regional economy
  • Economic Resilience – planning for, implementing, and measuring resilience
  • Identify infrastructure systems on which development strategies depend and the system providers whose input should be sought during planning
  • Identify critical infrastructure systems upon which businesses and industries depend
  • Inform the analysis of economic strength, weakness, and/or opportunities
  • Inform strategies to ensure continuity of services on which the economy depends

Comprehensive or General Plan

  • Existing Conditions – demographics, economy, housing, transportation, public utilities, land use, and natural resources
  • Goals and Objectives
  • Implementation Strategies
  • Future Land-Use Map (Zoning/Subdivisions)
  • Inform the design and capacity of infrastructure needed to support planned/proposed community development
  • Inform the development of public policies and organizational structures related to the maintenance of infrastructure systems and services
  • Inform system location requirements, such as infrastructure corridors, connections, and access
  • Inform development of design standards, codes, and guidelines

Capital Improvement Plan

  • List of projects
  • Ranking of projects
  • Financing plan
  • Timetable for project completion
  • Project justification
  • Classification of project expenditures
  • Identify infrastructure improvements or new infrastructure projects that require capital funds
  • In developing justification for infrastructure projects
  • Inform the ranking of identified projects based on how they impact infrastructure

Specific or Area Development Plan
(Transportation Plan, Land-use Plan, Water Management Plan, and others)

  • Performance Goals
  • Conditions and Needs Assessment
  • Improvement Strategies
  • Evaluation & Prioritization of Strategies
  • Implementation Plan
  • Plans for one sector consider impacts on other sector plans
  • In understanding the breadth of a sector based on the scale of the system(s) on which the sector depends or supports
  • Inform the evaluation and prioritization of development strategies based on how they address and/or impact critical infrastructure services
  • Support identification of opportunities to integrate projects across sectors

Emergency Operations Plan
(EOP) or Emergency Response Plan

  • Purpose, Policies, and Assumptions
  • Threats, Risks, and Vulnerabilities
  • Organization – roles & responsibilities
  • Coordination with External Organizations
  • Response Procedures
  • Incident Management Procedures
  • Resources
  • Identify critical response activities and response procedures
  • Inform the threat/hazard scenarios addressed in the plan
  • Identify external organizations with whom response should be coordinate
  • Identify response resources that need to be developed

Long-term Recovery Plan

  • Recovery issues, needs, and opportunities
  • Goals and objectives
  • Projects
  • Resources
  • Implementation strategy
  • Inform the analysis of recovery issues, needs, and opportunities
  • Inform infrastructure investment and rebuilding priorities
  • Articulate the goals of long-term recovery
  • Inform development of projects that would enhance the resilience of the community
  • Garner buy-in from the community to invest in solutions that enhance the resilience of infrastructure



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